About the project


The goal of ESM2025 is to advance the understanding of the Earth system and its response to human activities.

The project aims to develop the next generation of European Earth System Models including a more comprehensive representation of the Earth’s response to anthropogenic emissions and human land-use change.

The improved models will help to enhance the consistency of climate and mitigation-relevant processes across Earth System and Integrated Assessment models and provide valuable scientific insights to support successful implementation of the Paris Agreement.

Results from coordinated simulations with the new models will also provide more robust guidance on future global environmental risks, supporting policies targeting adaptation to global change.

This project is coordinated by Météo France-CNRM and started on the 1st of June 2021. It is funded by the H2020 European Commission programme for 4 years.

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Key messages for

Why improve Earth System Models?

Over the past decades, climate science has demonstrated that human activities are responsible for global warming and a range of associated environmental impacts. The current generation of Earth System Models has been a centrepiece of these achievements, providing an important scientific basis for understanding climate change and informing policy action, both for mitigation and adaptation to global change.

However, ESMs still need further development to reach their full potential in order to thoroughly design and assess the options needed to meet the objectives of the Paris Agreement. Our aim is therefore to develop a next generation of European ‘mitigation-oriented’ ESMs that can meet these objectives.


The structure of the project has been designed logically, from fundamental research (component development, process parameterisation, couplings) to interactions with the integrated assessment modeling community, and to outreach and knowledge exchange. Project activities are divided into 4 main work areas (Core Themes – CTs) ranging from scientific activities (CT1, CT2, CT3) to knowledge exchange and outreach (CT4).

Project team

ESM2025 relies on an international team of 19 European institutes and an Australian university. The team is composed of Earth system scientists and model developers, experts in machine learning for ESM analysis and data-driven hybrid modelling, model evaluation and feedback analysis, as well as specialists in climate education and science-policy dialogue.